The name of the constitutional right to receive from the special legal document - the constitution, which officially (Germany) or informally (Bulgaria), commonly referred to as the basic law. However, the constitutional right not to be reduced to the constitution, and includes a number of legal acts - Acts of Parliament, decrees and presidential decrees, regulations or ordinances of government decisions of the Constitutional Court or the Constitutional Council, etc.
Unlike other areas of law, each of which has its object of regulation (property and certain non-property relations in civil law, labor relations - in labor, crime and punishment - the criminal, etc.), legal documents relating to constitutional law is controlled primarily the most important, the most important public relations: the foundations of society, the state, the collective, the individual.
These acts, taken together, cover all four main areas of public life: the economy, social relations, politics and ideology. Constitutional law regulates the basis of socio-economic structure of society, its political system, the spiritual life and the legal status of the individual.
In the socio-economic sphere defines the basis of the constitutional right to property relations, and social role of the state, etc., in the political sphere - the creation and role of political parties, electoral associations, the organization of the state, etc., in the spiritual sphere of constitutional law may allow for pluralism (multiplicity ) ideologies, and can assign one of them as the official, dominant, the only (eg, Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong in China). The most important part of the constitutional law - the basis of the legal status of the individual: the constitutional rights, duties, and their warranty.
Thus, the constitutional law as a branch of law regulates relations in the framework respects "personality - group (meaning groups of a public character) - society - the state." Their legal relationship is based on the use of in accordance with the law of the government, are intended exercise of state power, participation in it, the pressure on her in the forms defined by the Constitution.
Constitutional law as a branch of law - a system internally agreed standards to strengthen and regulate the basis of socio-economic structure of society, its political system, the spiritual life and the legal status of the person providing the legal means conditions for the exercise of state power, participation in her fight for her peaceful , by constitutional means.
The rules of constitutional law govern the basis of the legal status of the individual, the principles of social and political system, the shape of the state, the methods of representative and direct democracy (the electoral system, the referendum), the organization and functioning of the legislative, executive and judicial power bases of local self-government and control.
What has been said about the object of constitutional law characterizes its main content, the global trend. In individual countries, unequal, by their terms, the trend is manifested in different ways. In the old constitutions (for example, in the United States Constitution in 1787 ') issues of public order, the spiritual life of society, and often the most important aspects of the legal status of the individual (social and economic rights) shall be regulated as little as possible, the main attention is paid to the authorities of the State of relationship.
The latest constitution, adopted after the Second World War (for example, the constitution of Italy in 1947), especially in recent years (Brazilian Constitution in 1988, Uzbekistan in 1991, Peru in 1993, Kazakhstan in 1995, Ukraine 1996., Belarus 1996 ., etc.), to more fully meet the above definition of the object of constitutional law (some of which were developed under the influence of a certain socialist conceptions of the object of the constitutional regulation).
However, as noted, there is a constitutional right is not limited to the constitution, it includes a number of other legal acts, and these acts, including the United States, in varying degrees, are the basics of all the major areas of public life. Controlled system of constitutional law in general in the modern world is more or less