Individuals and foundations of their legal status

The legal status of a person depends primarily on its status: the citizen, the alien (citizen of another state), a stateless person, a person with multiple (a special case - double) citizenship. The special status of refugees may also have (not citizens of the state of residence), internally displaced persons (citizens), displaced persons and others part of their provision is governed by international law, but in the main - the domestic law of a country.

The most extensive rights (including political, including the election, the right to form political parties, the right of access to public services) are citizens of the State, they also have the largest and duties (including military service, where there is universal conscription, for example in Germany, Israel or China).

Foreigners usually do not have many political rights, although in some countries, such as Germany, they participate in local elections, and in Latin America on the basis of reciprocity - ive parliamentary elections.

They have the right to property may receive, including free public housing, have the right to work, but their access to certain types of work is limited: in some countries, foreigners can not be captains of ships of Maritime Navigation, the commanders of the aircraft crews, working on radio , telegraph, television, etc.

On the other hand, they are not obliged to serve in the armed forces of the host country do not pay taxes (especially between states, such as, for example, the U.S. and Russia, there is agreement on the avoidance of double taxation), many countries do not have the right to acquire ownership of land . Foreigners have a passport (ID) of the state, and in the host country they will be given another document - a residence permit (sometimes, for example, for foreign students who just made a mark on the national passport). This applies to the "ordinary" foreigners.

On the diplomatic representatives on mission personnel are subject to special rules in accordance with international law and agreements between states.

The situation of stateless persons in many ways similar to that of foreigners. However, unlike the foreigners they do not enjoy the diplomatic protection of a State, which complicates the situation. Therefore, in modern international law is a tendency to adopt measures that reduce the status of stateless persons (are international conventions, multilateral and bilateral agreements).

Under current law in most countries of stateless persons, as well as foreigners who may be forcibly expelled from the country (for citizens to apply such a measure latest constitutions forbid). This also applies to employees of diplomatic missions, though in the case of special rules and special order deportation.

Individuals with multiple, dual citizenship have the rights and obligations in accordance with the laws of all the States of which they are members. Collisions (coincidence responsibilities to several states, such as military service) are resolved through diplomatic channels.

Foreigners and stateless persons with multiple nationality, as well as citizens of this country must know and obey the laws of their country of residence. Ignorance of the law is no excuse for

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Constitutional law

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