The classification of constitutions legal grounds

Depending on the form of two different types of constitutions: written and unwritten. Written constitution - it is a special piece of legislation or a few different times often acts (for example, in Finland, Sweden), which officially proclaimed the fundamental laws of this country.

Unwritten constitution - a collection of various laws, precedents and practices (conventional norms) due to the recent so called unwritten constitution. These acts and regulations in their entirety fixed to some extent the basis of the existing order, but does not formally proclaimed as the basic laws (the United Kingdom, New Zealand).

This difference is largely arbitrary, since there is currently no such constitutions, which would be completely unwritten (even Britain, which is considered a classic country unwritten constitution is composed of the basic law of the set of written laws). In essence, this combination of the constitution, containing the written and unwritten rules.

Therefore, the above mentioned difference of written and unwritten constitution is often replaced by differences formal constitution (constitutional act) and the material constitution (set of rules governing the constitutional values).

In order of publication constitutions of the countries are divided into: the imposed (granted) adopted by the representative body (the constituent assembly, parliament) approved in a referendum. Imposed Constitution published presidential power without the participation of the representative bodies. In the era of the collapse of the feudal system in Europe constitutions often "bestowed" monarch "his people."

Now this form of oktroirovaniya rare (Qatar, Kuwait, etc.). During the period of the collapse of the colonial system oktroirovanie acquired some form - Awards metropolis old constitution of the colony. In fact, in neither case oktroirovanie was not a voluntary act: the European constitution XIX century. were pulled from the feudal lords as a result of the struggle of the masses led by the bourgeoisie, and the modern "granted" by the Constitution won victories of the national liberation revolutions.

 Changes vary according to the method "flexible" and "rigid" constitution. "Flexible" refers to those that are changed in the same manner as other laws (as, for example, the unwritten constitution of the UK). To make changes to the "hard" constitution requires special conditions mentioned above (qualified majority, a vote of a double, the approval by referendum, etc.).

Currently, there is a tendency for a growing number of "mixed" in the order of the amended Constitution: some of their articles can not be changed at all, others change in a more complex manner, and others - in simplified. An amendment to the "hard" constitution, of course, more difficult than in the "flexible", but if the text of the constitutional document remains unchanged for a long time, it does not mean that the same is also the actual constitution of the country. The actual constitution changes every time you change the balance of power in the country, but the text of the constitutional document such changes are reflected not always.

Depending on the period of the constitution are permanent or temporary. Of course, the assignment of a constitution in the first group does not mean its eternal validity: the eternal constitution was not and is not (more than two centuries, the United States has a constitution, more than a century - Belgium).

There are cases when adopted and officially named the permanent constitution was soon abolished and replaced with new, more progressive, or, on the contrary, reactionary. Permanent constitution - is one in which not fixed any chronological limits of its validity. Temporary constitution also limits the term of his actions or conditions, upon the occurrence of which it is replaced by the permanent constitution (for example, the Constitutional Declaration of the Yemen Arab Republic in 1974, the UAE temporary constitution in 1971, Sudan in 1985, Thailand in 1991, South Africa 1994 . etc.).

Temporary constitution adopted without convening a constituent assembly and a referendum is not imposed. Usually, they are declared as head of state (so often been in Egypt, is that the interim constitution of Thailand in 1991), or the new leadership of the country after a coup (Sudan in 1985).

With the collapse of the totalitarian regimes of the temporary constitution adopted by national conferences (Zaire, Ethiopia, etc.). In some countries, so accepted and permanent constitution (Benin, Congo, Chad, etc.). Many of the above-mentioned temporary constitutions been replaced by others, but, for example, in Iraq and the UAE interim constitutions are more than a quarter century.

In terms of goal-setting distinguish the constitution and declaring a programmatic nature. Software usually are all socialist constitution defining the goal of building socialism and communism (eg, in China, as explained by its leaders, the goal of building socialism, set in the constitution, requires for its implementation about 100 years).

Declaring a constitution does not contain policies, to the transformation of society (for example, the U.S. Constitution). However, a large part of the standard software constitutions - states, and in the ascertaining constitutions almost always contains elements of the program (for example, in the preamble).

A distinction is also the constitution of federal states, unitary states of the Federation. In rare cases, the constitution are in the autonomous political

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