Legal supremacy of the constitution requires monitoring of its compliance. There are specialized and non-specialized agencies that are required to prevent the application of laws and other acts that are contrary to the Constitution, and in some countries - and prevent? publication.
Specialized constitutional control (supervision) - the most important way to protect the constitution through legal means. Along with it there are others: public prosecutor's supervision over the legality, the president's role as the guarantor of the Constitution, the activities authorized by Parliament (ombudsmen, etc.).
However, the possibility of direct, non-legal ways to protect the constitution. For example, people in general and every citizen in accordance with the constitutions of Ghana, Germany, Slovakia, the right to prevent attacks on the democratic constitutional system.
There is a responsibility of officials for violation of the constitution (discussed below impeachment tradition of senior officials special court), the potential repressive measures to suppress violations of the Constitution (prohibition on court activities of political parties, undermining the constitutional order, the state of emergency).
A special role is played by the constitutional - legal, ad hoc bodies, a in some countries (France) - the control of the administrative courts (especially their higher authority).
In the course of constitutional (the bodies and procedures are discussed below) is not only the protection of constitutionality: normal, but their development in accordance with the changing situation.
The most striking example of this - the United States, where the action today in 1787 the constitution was adopted in very different socio-economic and political conditions. Nearly two centuries of constitutional review (since 1803), the courts, and especially the Supreme Court of the United States, have created their own interpretations of almost new, "living" constitution. The new rules of constitutional law are constitutional oversight bodies in other countries (India, Italy, Canada, France, etc.).
On the other hand, the constitutional control is not always protects the constitution of violating its laws. This is especially true in countries where surveillance is carried out only after: the unconstitutional regulations (especially the acts of the executive authorities, in particular in the order received delegated legislation) are sometimes decades before the question of their constitutionality.
Finally, in the practice of constitutional bodies themselves, there are times when their decisions are misinterpreted provisions in their constitutions. Indirectly evidenced by the dissenting opinions of members of constitutional courts, a fairly common decision-making at a minimum margin of votes.
However institute constitutional control (supervision) - the most important democratic institution. Proper operation, ensures compliance with the Basic Law, which expresses the relation of social forces in society, and which is designed to maintain the necessary stability.
Among the bodies exercising constitutional scrutiny, there are agencies and officials who are engaged in it, along with the performance of other duties, and there are specially created for the purpose of constitutional