International migration is the movement of people between countries and due to globalization, inequality in living standards between rich and poor countries. Migration includes social, economic, political, cultural, demographic, as well as psycho-social, humanitarian, criminological and geopolitical component. The geopolitical aspect of migration due to the advent of "global diaspora." In this case, migration becomes a factor in international politics.
International migration of labor force (working-age population in a position to set physical and mental abilities), are an important factor in the international division of labor and economic development.
International labor migration at first glance not as large compared to the cross-border movement of capital and goods. However, its long-term effects it can cause geopolitical upheaval, not comparable with financial crises or trade wars. This is graphically illustrated by the example of Western Europe, which is a result of many years of promoting immigration of labor suddenly faced with the ethnic and demographic and religious issues.
International migration of population associated with the departure from the country, affects the population of the value of the migration balance. Net migration is formed by the difference between the number of people who moved from the country concerned (emigrants) and the number of people who moved to this country (immigrants).
In the process of migration involves the donor countries and recipient countries.
Donor countries are economic losses from the loss of qualified professionals, whose training is embedded domestic capital. Reduced intellectual stratum of the nation. In countries with high migration mobility might get an unfavorable demographic situation.
In recipient countries, on the contrary, improves the quality of the workforce, is the harmonization of the labor market and the economy on training. However, there may be negative effects on the labor market and in the social sphere. To isolate the flows of migrants used the concept of emigration and immigration.
Emigration - leaving the citizens of one country to another country for the purpose of employment or a change of residence and citizenship. Emigration is the action of forced resettlement from a country to another. Expat living on the border of two worlds. Geographical boundaries of time and transformed into a metaphysical border. Emigrant arrives in a state of incessant "crossing borders", moving from their own cultural space in someone else's back and forth.
Immigration - entry of nationals of another country for the purpose of employment or permanent residence. Traditionally, there are four types of immigration: employment, including seasonal workers, family reunification, refugees and illegal.
Also, are the following types of international migration:
permanent migration, which has the aim of finally moving to the host country;
Seasonal migration is associated with short-term (within a year) entry to work in those sectors of the economy of the host country, who experience significant fluctuations in seasonal employment, mainly in agriculture;
Commuting, including temporary (labor and tourism) and political (refugees).
In practice, all types of migration are closely intertwined with each other and the boundaries between them are blurred. Prior to the beginning of the twentieth century was the main type of permanent migration associated with the final migration to America and other continents. Seasonal migration, for example, is associated with the departure of Russian citizens to harvest citrus in Greece.
Provided low-skilled labor migration and migration of skilled professionals. For the post-Soviet countries are characterized by both types of migration to Western countries.
One of the forms of labor migration is the "brain drain" - immigration of skilled professionals in highly developed countries mainly from developing countries and Eastern Europe.
Different legal and illegal migration. State Migration Service of fighting illegal migration by various methods, including deportation.
For your information. Classical country of immigrants are the United States, where for the first 140 years of the history of immigration was smooth. Natural selection and strong-willed people passionary mostly from Europe, who have decided to cross the Atlantic Ocean, contributed not only to reduce the labor shortage in America, but also provided a high rate of economic growth. The flow of immigrants declined sharply during Perova World War II and received 20 years of immigration laws.
However, after the Second World War, immigration restrictions were lifted, and the annual influx of legal immigrants increased from between 50's to 80's from 250 to 500 thousand In legal immigration in this period marked a large-scale illegal immigration from Mexico, the Caribbean and Latin America, amounting to 500 thousand people a year. In the 90 years of the new wave of immigrants has been associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the socialist camp.
The current U.S. immigration laws establish quotas for the entry of individual countries allow family reunification and allow the entry of political exiles. As a result of large-scale liberal immigration policies (until September 11, 2001) The United States has received substantial benefits at the expense of the young, educated and skilled workers and full employment in the economy.
Labor migration has created many social and economic problems in the developed countries, including the criminal business, and the shadow economy.
At the beginning of the third century of almost 3% of the population working outside their own countries, in developed countries the immigrants make up more than 6% of the population.
The main causes of international migration of labor:
- The difference in the levels of remuneration in the donor countries and the countries of receptors,
- Unemployment in developing countries,
- The lack of cheap labor is not exclusive areas of the economy of developed countries.
For your information. The main causes of migration in the past had different rates of population growth, economic conditions, war and colonization. This led to a mass migration of Greeks, Jews, Germanic tribes, Scandinavians, Turks, Russian, Chinese and other peoples. Only from 1821 to 1924 55 million Europeans migrated to the New World, 35 million of them - in the United States. At the end of the twentieth century, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the number of international legal migrants was 100 million, refugees and illegal migrants - 30 million
The United States is the most attractive country for immigrants, although their share in the period 1970 - 2000 years. reduced from 17 to 8% of the national population. A particularly high proportion of immigrants in California (25%) and New York (16%).
The process of globalization of the world sprang from a large-scale migration. In today's world of cross-border movement of productive and financial capital is carried out at a higher rate than the labor force. Socially oriented economy in developed countries provides stability in the labor market by curbing the growth of unemployment, the dynamics of wages paid, health and education, and ethnic politics.
The main migration flows from developing countries. The difference in pay between the rich North and the poor South reaches several tens of times. In highly developed countries have set up numerous ethnic enclaves of immigrants from South and East Asia, North America and Eastern Europe.
Migrants occupy a niche-status occupations, form closed structures, not assimilated into the local society. Enclaves are often the backbone for the formation of ethnic criminal activity and the shadow economy.
This creates ethnic tension and tighter immigration policies in Western European countries. The labor market has become an important factor in national economic security and