Playing a catalytic role in the development of the world economy, the international movement of capital causes different effects on exporters and importers of capital.
The consequences for countries that export capital are as follows:
- Export of capital abroad without adequate foreign investment leads to a slowdown in economic development exporting country;
- Export of capital is negative impact on the level of employment in the exporting country;
- Transfer of capital abroad adversely affects the balance of payments of the country.
For countries importing capital, the positive effects can be the following:
- Adjustable import of capital contributes to the economic growth of the country of the recipient of capital;
- Raise capital creates new jobs;
- Foreign capital brings new technology, effective management, helping to accelerate the country's scientific and technological progress;
- Capital inflow improves the balance of payments of the recipient country.
In turn, there are also negative effects of foreign capital:
- The inflow of foreign capital, "crushing" local capital, or taking advantage of his inaction, displaces it from the lucrative industries. As a result, under certain conditions, this can lead to one-sided development of the country and the threat of economic security;
- Uncontrolled import of capital may be accompanied by environmental pollution;
- Import of capital is often associated with pushing through the market of the country of the recipient of goods, which already passed its life cycle, as well as taken out of production as a result of identified substandard properties;
- Import loan capital leads to an increase in the external debt of the country;
- The use of transfer pricing by multinational corporations leads to the loss of the recipient country in tax revenues and customs duties.
Impact of international capital flows affect the socio-economic and political order of the country. Of course, they are different for developed and less developed countries and countries with economies in transition.
However, in any case can not rely on the possibility of using only positive factors, cutting off the negative effects.
Public policy should seek compromises, highlighting the priority factors in a complex and contradictory process of international migration of capital, which is due