The basic theory of the international division of labor

Because MRI is playing an increasing role in the process of expanded reproduction in the world, providing the relationship of these processes, this leads to the fact that in the sectoral and territorial aspects of the country formed the relevant international proportions.

As the division of labor in general, MRI does not exist without the exchange, which occupies a special place in the internationalization of social production. The main motive MRI for all countries, irrespective of their social and economic differences, is their desire to obtain economic benefits.

Any country produces mainly the products that make it the most profitable and cheap. She sells them on the world market, and the money to acquire the missing overseas domestic goods. Thus, it is not necessary to produce each state's own territory is all he needs food.
Each economy benefits from an MRI. This gain is as follows. On the world market the goods arrive the country in which the national production costs are lower than the world, and imported goods, whose production costs are higher than the national world.
At one time in his book "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of the people" by A. Smith substantiated thesis according to which the basis for the development of the international division of labor is an absolute difference of costs (the theory of absolute costs). He noted that the goods must be imported from a country where costs is less, and export those goods, the costs are lower for exporters.
Adam Smith's views were supplemented and developed by David Ricardo, who formulated the theory of comparative costs he thought it possible to split and mutually in the presence of absolute advantage of one country over another in the production of all goods.
The basis of the theory of comparative advantage (or comparative costs of production) is the idea that there are differences between countries in terms of production. In line with this it is assumed that in any country in any natural and climatic conditions, in principle, it is possible to produce any goods.
For example, grapes can be grown in Scotland. However, its cost would be very high, and it obtained from wine - maloupotrebimoe. A comparison of the costs associated with the production of certain goods, leads to the conclusion that in place of all the goods for which a demand is much more profitable to focus on the production of a single, but the least cost. Specialization in this product will acquire through exchange on the foreign market of all other commodities.
The theory of comparative costs prove the profitability of specialization not only in terms of absolute advantage of one country over another in the production of a certain product, but even in those circumstances where there is no such advantage.
When the costs below the international level can not be produced any products, by any one product exceeding this average will be the smallest. In the production of this product is more advantageous in comparison with the costs of other goods, and should specialize. Even in this case will give a specialty economic effect. Provides for the reverse situation. In a pre-emptive provisions of the country in the production of several commodities, it should specialize in the production of only one for which this benefit is maximum.
Formulated in the works of Ricardo-Torrens law of comparative costs only postulated the principles of the international division of labor. John Stuart Mill, in turn, showed two main provisions:
1) the natural tendency of the international industrial specialization leads to the establishment of equilibrium in the benefits to be gained from this study;
2) the conditions of complete or partial specialization defined by the inequality in income derived from production.
As a result, the idea of ​​competitive balance gave a theoretical justification for the provisions of the Ricardo-Torrens and opened its mechanism of action.
The ideas of classical bourgeois political economy have been developed in the XX century economists: E. Heckscher, B. Ohlin, P. Samuelson, W. Leontief, etc. They were embodied in the formation of the modern theory of international trade international mechanism

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