A free, special or a special economic zone (SEZ or SEZ abbreviated) - limited area with special legal status in relation to the rest of the territory and favorable economic conditions for domestic and / or foreign entrepreneurs. The main purpose of establishing such zones - the strategic objectives of the state as a whole or separate areas: foreign trade, general economic, social, regional, and scientific and technical problems.
With the goal of creating a point of view of the state:
attracting foreign direct investment, advanced technologies of production of goods and services;
the creation of new jobs for highly qualified personnel;
development of the export base;
testing of new methods of management and work organization.
With the goal of creating an investor's perspective:
development of new markets;
approximation of production to the consumer;
minimization of costs associated with the lack of export and import duties;
access to infrastructure;
the use of cheaper labor;
reduction of administrative barriers;
development of the area.
SEZ can be classified by function, the degree of integration in the economy and the benefits provided.
The Free Trade Area (FTA) - an area derived from the national customs territory. Operations are carried out within the warehousing of goods and their pre-sales (packaging, labeling, quality control, etc.).
Industrial Production Zone (PTT) - part of the national customs territory within which launched production of a specific industrial products, while investors enjoy various benefits.
Technology development zone (SEZ) - the area derived from the national customs territory, which are placed inside the research, design, engineering offices and organizations. Examples of TIZ: parks, techno.
Tourist and recreational zone (TRZ) - an area on which is tourism and recreation activities - creation, reconstruction, development of infrastructure of tourism and recreation, development and provision of services in the tourism sector.
Service area - a territory with preferential treatment for firms engaged in the provision of financial and non-financial services (export-import operations, real estate, transportation)
Complex band. Are areas with preferential treatment of economic activities in the territory of a separate administrative district. This - the free zone in Western Europe, Canada, formed in depressed areas, special economic zone in China, the territory of a special regime in Argentina and Brazil.
According to the degree of integration into the economy
Areas that are integrated into the national economy, focused on the development of relations with the branches of the national economy, outside the zone, and help solve the problems of export production, improve the technological level of production, improve product quality, meeting the domestic needs.
Enclave (export-oriented) of the area in which the production of export-oriented and replenishment of foreign exchange earnings, and the connection to the domestic economy is minimal.
Systems of privileges
Tax: tax "holidays" - a partial or complete exemption from the payment of investors of property taxes and property tax, VAT, etc. (according to the SEZ law, which came into force on January 1, 2006: Residents PPV five years are exempt from paying land, property and vehicle taxes by 4% (to 16%) reduced income tax.)
Customs (Import) - partial or full exemption from import duties on semi-finished products, raw materials, etc., imported for use inside the zone;
Customs (Export) - a partial or complete exemption from export duties on products manufactured within the zone.
Financial - investment subsidies, government subsidized loans, reduced rates for utilities and rent industrial buildings.
Administrative - a simplified procedure for registration of enterprises, simplified procedures for entry and exit of foreign nationals legally unfettered export of profits by foreign nationals abroad.
Special economic zone - an area that the government gives special legal status and economic incentives to attract Russian and foreign investors in priority for the Russian industry.
In the Russian system development of special economic zones began in 2005, with the adoption of the Federal Law on the SEZ 22.07.2005
The purpose of the special economic zones - the development of high-tech industries, import-substituting industries, tourism and resort areas, development and manufacture of new products, the expansion of transport and logistics system.
The SEZ a special regime of doing business:
investors get created at the expense of the state budget for infrastructure, business development, thus reducing the overhead of creating a new production;
by the regime of free customs zone customs residents receive significant benefits;
provides a number of tax incentives;
System Administration "one window" to simplify interaction with state regulators.
In Russia, there are special economic zones of four types:
- Industrial production zones or industrial SEZ.
- Technique development zones or innovative SEZ.
- Port zone.
- Tourist and recreational areas or tourist SEZ.
In addition, in the Kaliningrad region since 1991 operates SEZ (SEZ "Amber, Kaliningrad SEZ), the conditions of which at the moment are specified in a separate Federal Law № 16-FZ of 10.01.2006
Vast areas located in the major industrial regions of the country. The proximity to the resource base for production of ready access to infrastructure and main roads - this is only the basic characteristics of industrial (industrial production) zones, which determine their benefits. Location of production in the industrial zones can improve the competitiveness of products in the Russian market by reducing costs.
Industrial zones are located within the district of the Republic of Tatarstan Elabuzhsky (SEZ "Alabuga") and Griazinsky district of Lipetsk region (Lipetsk SEZ). August 12, 2010 signed a government resolution on the establishment of a special economic zone of industrial type in the Samara region, the area of which is directly adjacent to Togliatti.
Among the priorities of the industrial zones of production:
- Cars and automotive components;
- Building materials;
- Chemical and petrochemical products;
- Electrical household appliances and commercial equipment.
Location of innovation (technical innovation) SEZ in major scientific and educational centers with a rich academic tradition and recognized research schools, opens up great opportunities for innovative business development, hi-tech production and output it to the Russian and international markets.
Package customs exemptions and tax incentives, access to the professional workforce, along with the growing demand for new technologies and modernization of various sectors of the Russian economy is doing innovative SEZ attractive to venture capital funds, as well as designers and manufacturers of high-tech products.
Four innovation zones are located in Tomsk, St. Petersburg, Moscow and Dubna (Moscow region).
Priority areas of innovation zones are:
- Nano-and biotechnology;
- Medical technology;
- Electronics and communications;
- Information technology;
- Precise and analytical instrumentation;
- Nuclear physics.
Located in the most scenic and popular tourist regions of Russia, travel (tourism and recreation) SEZ offer favorable conditions for the organization of tourism, sports, recreational and other types of businesses.
Seven tourist zones are located in the Irkutsk region, Altai, Altai Republic, the Republic of Buryatia, the Kaliningrad region, Stavropol Territory, Primorye. Another six newly-created special economic zone located in the North Caucasus Federal District.
Port and logistics special economic zones are located in close proximity to major global transit corridors. Their position allows access to the fast-growing market is extremely popular port and logistics services in the Far East, and in the central part