In its formation and development of the world economy (MX) has come a long and difficult way. Some researchers its origin dates back to the time of the Roman Empire, which is the system of the world economy at the time.
Other scientists count for the world economy are from the time of the great geographical discoveries of XV-XVI centuries. It is these discoveries have led to the rapid development of international trade in jewels, spices, precious metals, slaves. However, the world economy this period was limited, being only the sphere of application of merchant capital.
The modern world economy emerged after the industrial revolution, during the escalation of capitalism in its monopoly stage. The world economy of late XIX - early XX centuries. markedly different from the MX 60-90-ies of XX century. The world economy beginning of the XX century, largely based on military force, extra-economic coercion, than the "power of capital." In the global economy of this period there were sharp contradictions that made it unstable. This contradiction between the imperialist countries themselves (which led to two world wars), as well as between developed and developing countries.
By the middle of the XX century, the world economy has been split into two parts: the world capitalist and socialist world. In the system of international economic relations the world capitalist economy has taken a dominant position: 9/10 of all international trade at the beginning of the 90s had to trade within the global capitalist economy, through international economic exchange at the end of the 80s implemented fifth of the total gross domestic product of the capitalist world.
In the former socialist countries made one third of the national income of the world, including in the CMEA countries - fourth,
With 60 years in the MX went to developing countries. By the mid-70s among them notable are the so-called "newly industrialized countries" of Southeast Asia (the first wave - 4 "small dragon" - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore) and the countries of Latin America: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico .
After the collapse of the Soviet Union and revolutionary changes in Eastern Europe, the world economy begins to acquire the features of a single, holistic education. The emerging global world economy, while not uniform, includes the national economies of industrialized countries, developing countries and countries with an economic system in transition.
Keeping the many contradictions and diverse trends, MX at the turn of the XXI century is much more holistic, integrated, dynamic than in the middle of the XX century.
World economy at the turn of the XXI century - global in scope, it is based entirely on the principles of market economy, the objective laws of the international division of labor, the internationalization of production and capital.
By the end of the 90s in the global economy emerged a number of consistent trends. They are:
- Stable economic growth. Average growth rates of all countries of the world have risen from less than 1% in the early 90s up to 3% per annum at the end of the decade;
- Improving the external economic factor in economic development. Significantly increased the scope and qualitatively changed the character of the traditional materialized international trade in goods and services. There was "electronic commerce", that is, trade on the Internet;
- The globalization of financial markets and the increasing interdependence of national economies;
- The growth of the share of the service sector in the national economy and international exchange;
- The development of regional integration processes.
The degree of unity of trade, production, credit and finance in industrialized countries is indicative of the formation of the global economic complex (MHC). Its members, despite the presence of national borders, functions as an integral part of the overall economic system. Going internationalization, globalization of economic life. These concepts is the effective functioning of a multi-level system of global economic relations, uniting individual countries in a complex global world.
The internationalization process is presented primarily as a result of international cooperation of production, the development of the international division of labor, as the development of the social character of production on an international scale.
The internationalization of production and capital - a concept more quantity than quality. Internationalization can be carried out in several countries or between most countries.
The process of globalization in the world economy is a natural result of the internationalization of production and capital. Globalization is largely presented as a quantitative process of increasing poverty, broadening the scope of global economic relations.
Phenomenon (the phenomenon), globalization can be seen from two sides. At the macro level, globalization refers to the total commitment of individual countries and regions in economic activity outside their borders. Signs of such aspirations: the liberalization, the removal of trade and investment barriers, the creation of free zones, etc.
At the micro level, under globalization meant the expansion of the company beyond the domestic market. In contrast to the inter-ethnic and multi-national orientation of entrepreneurship, globalization means a unified approach to the development of the world market.
Globalization is primarily through regionalization, when the country's foreign economic relations are guided by their own and neighboring countries. On the basis of regionalization is the international economic integration, ie fusion of the economies of neighboring countries into a single regional economic complex on the basis of deep and strong economic ties between their companies. So there are integration associations to regulate the integration processes between the participating countries.
Although for most of the twentieth century. government regulation of the economy intensified in recent decades, there is a tendency to its deregulation (liberalization). Distinguish between domestic and foreign trade liberalization. Foreign economic liberalization began replace the foreign trade protectionism as the main direction of foreign economic activities of developed countries still at 50-60 years., And in other groups of countries - mostly later. As a result, the economies of most countries of the world is turning into a more open, characterized by significantly higher rates of growth compared with the closed.
Globalization describes the growing interconnection and interdependence of individual national economies. In the XX century, the internationalization of the exchange grows in the internationalization of capital and production, is a significant impetus to the development under the influence of scientific and technological revolution (STR) from the mid 50-ies of XX century. A dramatic increase in international specialization and cooperation in production. Within the internal market are getting closer to a large-scale specialized production. It is an objective transcends national boundaries.
The globalization of production under the influence of scientific and technological revolution creates a situation where virtually no country is not practical to have "their" production. The individual national economies are increasingly integrated into the world economy, trying to find their niche in it. The increasingly international character of the movement acquires workforce, training, exchange of experts.
Special scope acquired process of integration and globalization of financial markets. The volume of international financial flows exceeds the volume of international trade in the ratio of 60:1 at the same time increase the volume of world trade every year exceeds the increase in global gross domestic product (GDP) of more than 5%. By the end of the 90s the globalization of the world economy has acquired a number of new features compared to the 80-mi years.
First, the liberalization of foreign economic relations and international payments covered a number of new countries of the former "socialist camp."
Second, actively tendency to unification and standardization. It is increasingly common to all applicable standards of the technology, the environment, the activities of financial institutions, accounting and statistical reporting. The standards apply to education and culture.
Third, international economic organizations are adopting uniform criteria macroeconomic policy is the unification of requirements for tax policy to the policy in the field of employment, etc.
Study patterns of formation of global economic relations and prospects for their development shows that the general trend of the world economy is moving towards a single market of global capital, goods and services, economic convergence and integration of individual countries into a single world economic complex. This suggests the need to study the problems of the global economy as a system, a complex of ERI. This is a different and higher level of international economic relations.
The process of globalization of the world economy, meaning the ever-increasing interdependence of the economies of individual countries, accelerating the exchange of goods, services, capital, information, not besproblemen. Globalization reinforces the position in the first place, the industrialized countries, giving them additional benefits. Of course, the globalization of the world economy and international economic relations creates certain prerequisites that has a chance to be attached to the achievements of the civilization of the countries that are lagging behind in their development, but are eager to improve their situation. However, the process of globalization has negative consequences. These include the following issues:
Taking into account both the positive and negative aspects of globalization, we must admit that the formation of the global world economy - an important sign that the former world economy based on self-sufficiency and sustainability of the national cultures of specific economic systems, is coming to an end. Before our eyes, there is a new form of organization and structure of the world economy.
In particular, in the management of the international community and the world economy lost the former role of the UN. Its functions are transferred to the governments of the "Big Eight" and the "Big Twenty". Managing the global economy begins to concentrate in the new triad of the World Trade Organization - International Monetary Fund - World Bank. And it's not the end of the process, but only the beginning.
Global world economy is becoming a new reality obeying the new laws that are to be studied and consciously use. Global world economy (international economy) is no longer just the outer sphere of the world economy, but acquiring the features of the system. It is based on a feasibility basis internationalized production, commonly agreed between many countries trade and monetary regimes.
However, we should not forget that globalization - a process that is not yet acquired a global character. About half of the population in developing countries live in a closed economy, is not affected by the growth and intensification of international economic relations.
In parallel, there are two worlds: international and self-sufficient economy, one of which (the self-sufficient economy) is gradually reduced in size and importance in the world