International trade is the main form of international economic relations. According to the dynamics and value indicators it is outstripping the growth of world production, the movement of capital and other forms of foreign economic relations, which is one of the most important characteristics of today's world economy. The rate of growth of international export-import operations exceeds the rate of growth of the major segments of the global production, including manufactured goods, minerals and agricultural products.
The increasing importance of trade in the global economy and its rapid development due to the objective process of globalization and growing interdependence of most countries of the world. The intensification of the global exchange of goods contributed to significant progress in the development of the international division of labor.
In the field of international trade exchange regimes and multilateral agreements worked out in the framework of the WTO - an international organization operating on the basis of a multilateral treaty that establishes the principles and rules of world trade. The WTO aims to liberalize the export-import operations and, in particular, the reduction and elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers.
Further increase in international commodity contributed to a significant liberalization of the foreign trade policies of developing countries, expansion of trade between them and, in addition, the preservation of favorable conditions in the industrial markets in many developing and newly industrialized countries. Significant importance was also a revolution in the field of information technology and telecommunications.
An important factor in the growth of world trade is a significant increase in re-exports of industrial goods produced in developing countries, using components and materials imported under the system of trade agreements.
In recent years there have been significant changes in the structure of world trade. In particular, the share of services has increased communication and information technology, at the same time reducing the share of trade in commodities and agricultural products.
Certain changes occur in the geographical distribution of world trade. Gradually increasing trade of developing countries, but especially rapidly increasing volumes of goods from the newly industrialized countries.
Rapidly developing foreign trade of China, India and Brazil, which enabled these countries to become one of the largest trading nations in the world.
However, still a significant part of world trade - about a third of the world's export-import operations - accounted for the major industrial countries (the U.S., Germany and Japan). In one of the largest trading nations of the world are France, UK, Italy, Canada, the Netherlands, Belgium.
Thus, the following modern trends in international trade:
1. The dynamics of international trade is characterized by a high rate of development
2. The overall growth of foreign trade, its dynamics in individual countries and regions differs
3. Foreign trade is growing faster than the overall rate of on-farm development in
4. Rose export and import quotas in many countries
5. Geographical configuration of the world trade in the post-war period was characterized by asymmetric
6. The main flow of international trade is trade between developed countries
7. Changing commodity composition of world trade:
- Diversifying the flow of goods involved in international trade;
- Increases in the share of international trade in manufactured goods;
- Increased volume of international trade of chemical products;
- Reducing the share of international trade in commodities, fuel, and food