Types and forms of the international division of labor

Historically and logically distinguish 3 types of MRI:

1. Total MRI - in the spheres of production and sectors of the economy: industry specialization. Hence the division of the exporting countries to industrial, raw, agricultural, etc.
 
2. Private MRI - specializing in certain types of finished goods and services (subject matter specialization of) the production of watches (Switzerland), cosmetics (France), paints (Germany), etc.
 
3. A single MRI - specialized in manufacture of individual parts, assemblies, components, and to process stages (technological specialization). This - the most sophisticated and promising system that increasingly defines the interaction of national economies as a whole as well as individual corporations and businesses.
 
MRI at this stage appears in two forms: an international specialization in production (SMEs) and international production cooperation (IPC).
 
SMEs - is a form of division of labor between the countries in which individual countries within the framework of the process of making more homogeneous products of labor in excess of domestic needs of a country, and the result is a progressive differentiation of the national economies.
 
SMEs can be viewed from two angles:
1.Territorialny section: specialization of individual countries, groups of countries and regions in the manufacture of certain products or parts for the global market.
2. Industrial specialization:
• interdisciplinary;
• Intra;
• specialization of individual firms.
 
The main types of SMEs include:
 
1. Subject: Production of finished products (for example, France - cosmetics, Switzerland - hours).
 
2. Exploded view: the production of parts, assemblies and other components of the product (for example, the specialization of the Asia-Pacific region).
 
3. Technological (phasic): implementation of certain operations or processes (eg, assembly).
 
The international specialized, industry - a sector defining the nature of international specialization of the country.
 
Characteristics of the international specialized, industry:
1. A significantly higher proportion of exports in this sector compared to the share of exports in other sectors. For example, in Russian exports of energy resources is about 40% of the total exports. Accordingly, no other industry has such a high rate of exports.
2. A higher proportion of an industry in the production of the country compared to its share in world production.
 
The international production cooperation (IPC) involves the coordination of economic activities of enterprises - partners from different countries in a particular field of activity, which involves:
• prior approval of the parties terms of joint activities;
• consolidation as objects of co-finished products, components and related technology;
• the allocation of tasks between the partners in the framework of the agreed program.
 
One of the causes of the IPC is a tendency to increase the capital intensity of production of new products, which requires huge financial resources. International specialization and cooperation of production reduces the time of establishing the manufacture of new products and reduces their capital intensity. Thus, according to the UNECE, the international agreements on technical cooperation and the exchange of units and parts on the basis of co-operation by an average of 14-20 months reduced time setting up the production of new products compared with the organization of its exclusive in-house, as well as 50-70 % reduces the cost of development of production.
 
In addition, co-operation will give the opportunity to reach more than 90% of the level of product quality foreign partner, while the development of foreign technologies in the home allows for only 70-80% of the total.
 
This is due to the fact that international cooperation enhances a more comprehensive, long-term and mobile use various inputs.
 
Thus there are also savings due to new technical and management solutions based on advanced foreign

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