The concept of the essence, attributes and types of power

Power in its most general form is the ability of (property) of a subject (individual, group, organization) to subjugate the will and the behavior of the other entity (individual, group, organization) for their own benefit or for the benefit of others.

As a phenomenon of power characterized by the following features:

1. Power is a social phenomenon that is public.

2. The power of an attribute (an integral component) of the company at all stages of its development. (This is why, by the way, is not correct, in the literature, a phrase such as "social power", because the power is social). The fact that power is a constant companion of society, because society is a complex systems (the social body), which is constantly in need of management, that is in the process of ordering, aimed at keeping the system in good, working condition - functional.

From the point of view of the genesis (origin) is the need to manage the company determines it the presence of such a thing as power. But not vice versa, when it is assumed that the ordering of social processes began to happen because there was power in the society and its media.

It should be noted that the government is just a means of social control, as the control can be not only a social but also, in particular, technical, ie the management of technical systems (eg, a car). Thus, the control - the phenomenon is more widespread than the government, which is a purely social phenomenon. The essence of this point more fully disclosed in the next sign of power.

3. Power can exist and function only within the framework of social relations, that is, a relationship that exists between people (individuals, their teams, other social entities). There can not be a relationship of power between the individual and a thing or between humans and animals (even if the animal is owned by the owner and he can dispose of his fate). This is due to the quality of the following is a characteristic feature of power.

4. The exercise of power is always an intellectual and volitional process when the imperious impulse coming from the subject of the ruling before determine (to determine, identify) was subject to the will and behavior, the last to be realized, perceived his mind. For this reason can not be the subjects of relations of power and subordination of people with deformities of mind and will.

5. Social relations within which power exists and is being implemented, are a form of social relations and power relations have a name. Power relations is always a two-way, one of the subjects which is overbearing (conquer) the subject, and the other - subservient. From the point of view of the general social they are both just actors, that is, human beings endowed with consciousness and will, but under authority of power relations in a particular subject appears as the object of the powerful impact of ruling subject.

6. The most important feature of power is that it is always based on force. The presence of forces determines the position of an entity as a ruling. The strength of power can be of different nature: it may be a physical force, the force of weapons (clubs, guns, nuclear bombs), the power of the intellect, the power of authority, beliefs, aesthetic influence (power of beauty), etc. In this context, should not be confused by violence, "the authority of force" and the "power of authority" - are different things. Violence involves the exposure of a subject against his will by means of physical coercion or threat of coercion.

The notion of "coercion" in terms of broader concept of "violence." Coercion is not always associated with violence: it may be indirect, and basically implies a certain dependence of the will was subject to the will of the ruling. However, this dependence implies a conviction. Then what's the difference? It seems characteristic of the process of enforcement is that under authority is aware that under the influence of power, he acts contrary to their own interests and values. In the case of a conviction under authority believes that the proposed subject of the domineering type of behavior in the interests of both fit into the value system was subject.

7. Due to the fact that the government can only take place in a consciously willed attitude and always implies submission to the will of the ruling was subject to the will of the subject, the lack of such a submission in respect of the specific means and the lack of power in this regard. In other words, the conscious submission is subject to the presence of power in this particular respect on this particular subject.

There are different kinds of power.

The power can be classified on various grounds. For example, from the point of view of its social level can be distinguished:

a) the power in the social scale;

b) power within a particular group (organization);

c) the power in the relationship between two individuals.

The power can be divided as the political and non-political. Political power is the one that is able to perform a means of solving political problems, that is, means of implementation, to protect the interests of large social groups. Varieties of political power is the power of one social group (community) over another (for example, the domination of one class over the other), the state power, the power of the party and other political organizations and movements, the power of political leaders. Although there is a view (Prof. Baytin) that the power of the state and political power - are one and the same phenomenon. However, such a position is hardly justified.

Power within a particular social community (society, group, organization, etc.) depending on the mode of organization and ruling can be democratic or non-democratic. And this applies not only to the division of political power, but also all other management-related groups, as democracy

beautiful pictures


Constitutional law

Пред След