Money supply and its structure

The unity of money and non-cash circulation of cash made possible the consideration of them as a combination in the form of money, which means the aggregate amount of cash and non-cash money turnover. The Federal Law "On the Central Bank of the Russian Federation" provides that: "The Bank of Russia may set targets growth of one or more indicators of money ..." (v. 43).

It is important to emphasize that we are talking about the total amount of the money supply, which includes cash and non-cash operations cash.

The differences between non-cash payments and non-cash turnover, which occurs through the transfer of securities, manifested in the fact that the composition of the money supply does not include securities.

Money in circulation is characterized by the monetary aggregate M2, which structure includes cash in circulation M0 (the sum of currency in circulation outside banks, ie net cash balances of banks and balances in national currency for settlement, current accounts and deposits of non-financial enterprises, organizations and individuals who are residents of the Russian Federation. This unit does not include deposits in foreign currency).

Relatively recently in the Russian Federation for the characterization of the value of the money supply was primenyatsyapokazatel M2X, which in addition to the value M2 also includes all types of deposits in foreign currency (ruble equivalent - X). As for the characteristics of the relative security of the money supply turnover ratio is used K2 = M2H/GDP. The value of this coefficient (R2) is intended to characterize the relative security of turnover means of payment. In developed countries, its value is 0.6-1.0.

The total amount of money, including its growth, largely by an increase in the absolute size of the loan banks. On this side of the quantity of money in circulation is the result of monetary policy.

In Russia, the structure of the money supply is characterized by a relatively large proportion of cash, which reaches in some periods 35% of its total volume, which is much higher than in developed countries. Therefore, with the development of non-cash payments will be improved and the structure of the money supply in the direction of reducing the share of cash and increasing the share of non-cash turnover.

The use of a large mass of cash due to the significant amount of cash payments, so it is possible to release some of the activities from taxation. So getting the budget revenues due to it enhances the interest of the public in the development of non-cash payments and, consequently, to reduce the mass of cash in circulation.

Some interest has recently attracted the monetary base, the value of which is the result of:

• the amount of cash in circulation and in the offices of commercial banks;

• in the fund of obligatory bank reserves;

• balances on correspondent accounts of commercial banks with the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.

The value of the money supply is much greater than the value of the monetary base. So do not be to characterize the quantity of money in circulation use the data on the monetary base. Regulation of money supply and monetary base by means of monetary policy conducted by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.

As part of the measures provided for monetary policy, we can note the change in the discount rate of the Central Bank to provide resources by way of refinancing of commercial banks, the establishment of standards of education fund reserve requirements of commercial banks, to be stored in the Central Bank, the application of regulations governing the activities of commercial banks, limiting commercial transactions banks in the Central Bank, etc. These measures are designed to prevent excessive growth of the money supply and monetary base, over which the

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