The subject and the means of labor

As the social production is in the form of joint activity of people possible to identify two of its sides:

· Relationship of people to nature;

· Ratio between the people in the production process.

The first side of social production, which means the ratio of men to nature, outwardly expressed in the labor process.

Labor is a process that is completed between man and nature. In modern labor is purposive human activities aimed at transforming the objects and forces of nature in order to meet its needs. Labor is the basis of the production process.

The main elements of the labor process are:

· Work as a purposeful activity;

· Items of work;

· Means of labor.

Should be distinguished work as a factor of production labor. Labor - is primarily a process, while the labor force - a set of physical characteristics and mental abilities, his ability to work. Thus, the work - there is a process of consumption of the labor force.

In the process of working people affected by a particular part of nature, which is called "the subject of work." The subject of work - this is what the aims of human labor (just natural material or raw material that has already passed some adaptation).

Human impacts on the subject of work is carried out with the help of "the instruments of labor." Means of work is called a thing or set of things that a person puts between himself and the subject of labor, and which are the conductor of his actions on the subject. The instruments of labor are divided into two groups: natural, or natural (land, forest, water, etc.) and produced, or technical, created by people (machinery, equipment, buildings).

Objects of labor and means of work referred to collectively as the "means of production" and they form a real (objective) factor of production. The labor force is seen as a personal (subjective) factor of production. The means of production and labor rights are the productive forces.

The productive forces - one of the key categories of Marxist political economy. Roughly the equivalent of this category in economics - "factors (resources) of production." It should be noted that in Marxist political economy recognized priority for the "labor" in economics - affirms the equality of all factors of production (labor, capital, land).

In the production process, people not only act on nature, but also enter into definite relations with each other. Human relations in the process of production, distribution, exchange and consumption are called the relations of production.

Industrial relations are a complex system, as the production - not a single act, and constantly repeated process of direct production of certain goods, distribution, exchange and consumption. Outside the unity of these spheres of social production does not exist. In the field of production creates a product that is the subject of distribution, exchange and consumption.

Thus, the second side of social production, covering the relationship between people, expressed category of "relations of production".

Industrial relations are in a dialectical unity, the interaction with the productive forces. The most moving part of the public production are the productive forces. At certain stages of development of the productive forces come into conflict with the relations of production, which are converted to their brakes.

The totality of the productive forces and the relations of production method. Mode of production and the superstructure (political, legal, philosophical, and other views of society and their respective institutions) form a socio-economic formation

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