The structure of the constitution

Legal constitution can be a single document (it is consolidated or codified, Constitution). Such is the vast majority of the constitutions of the countries of the world (China, 1982, Papua - New Guinea in 1975, Brazil in 1988, Ukraine in 1996, and others). Sometimes, however, an amendment to the constitution in its text has not been, and are attached to it in a certain numbering (eg, the U.S.).

The legislative act constituting the consolidated constitution, often called: "Constitution". But in some cases, a different terminology: "Political Constitution" (Columbia), "federal constitutional law" (in Austria - one of the acts), "Basic Law" (Germany).

In some countries, the constitution is a set of laws passed at different times (non-consolidated or codified, Constitution). The name of each one of them is usually given in accordance with the subject of regulation: "The form of government," "the Riksdag Act," "Act of Succession" - in Sweden, the laws of the Knesset (parliament), on the ground, on the judicial system - in Israel, the Sejm charter - in Finland, etc.

In some countries, the constitution includes not only the Constitution, but also some other fundamental documents. Thus, in France it is the 1958 Constitution, the preamble of the constitution abolished in 1946 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789

In rare cases, under the Constitution refers to the set of laws, judicial precedents and unwritten constitutional traditions (UK, New Zealand). Laws that are considered part of a constitution (and in Britain they were more than 300) are not made in a special manner (by qualified majority), and the usual way.

In countries where the constitution is not (Sultanate of Oman, etc.), their role does the holy book of Muslims - the Koran. In some countries, the Koran is part of the "constitutional block" being put on the Constitution and the rest of it (Iran, Saudi Arabia, etc.).

The role of the constituent parts of the constitution can carry political statements about the objectives and prospects of development of the country, adopted by a vote of national citizens (for example, the National Charter of Algeria in 1976, the Charter of the Malagasy Socialist Revolution in 1975, and others).

Importance of the constitutional documents may be given to proclamations of military and revolutionary councils, the National Salvation Council and other bodies coming to power in a military coup. These are the institutional acts adopted in Brazil after the coup in 1964, the proclamation of the Provisional Military Administrative Council in Ethiopia in 1974-1987. etc.

Constitution generally consist of a preamble (introduction), chapters (sections) thereof, articles which, in turn, can be divided into entries with numeric or alphanumeric numbering. In rare cases (eg Hungary) instead of articles are paragraphs. Transitional constitution is completed and the final regulations that provide for the continuity of the government, how to create new organs.

Many constitutions have applications that contain diagrams, models, different lists (eg, federal authorities and actors), the text of the oath of the president and others are an integral part of the constitution in some countries (USA, etc.) corrections to it, they are not made in the text and attached to

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Constitutional law

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