Concept, types and value (cost) goods

No society, no one can exist without the satisfaction of needs. Funds things that are suitable to meet the requirements referred to benefits.

Good - this object, phenomenon, process, product of labor, satisfying a human need and meets the interests, goals, aspirations of people.

Some benefits are available in almost unlimited scope (eg, air), the other - in a limited amount. The latter are called economic goods. They consist of items and services.

Economic benefits - welcome, but limited by the number of goods and services. The economic benefits are those that can be obtained in a limited number compared to the needs they can meet.

Non-economic benefits (gratuitous benefits) are provided by nature without effort man. These benefits exist in nature, "free", in sufficient amount to complete and permanent address specific human needs (air, water, light, etc.).

It should be a clear distinction between economic and non-economic benefits. This difference is related to the concept of scarcity. The benefit of a non-economic in unlimited quantities. The economic benefit is a rare blessing.

It is the ratio between the need or needed (in the terminology of Menger, a prominent representative of the Austrian school), and available for orders of goods, making them economic or non-economic

For example, if you live in the forest, the trunks of the trees to build a home for you are not economic goods. After all, their number in a huge number of times that your need for this building material.

Water to drink, if you live on the shore of the sparkling lake, not an economic boon. As such it will be for you only in the desert, where man's need for drinking is higher than that available to meet this need of water.

Due to the limitations of each economic good has a price.

Price - the monetary expression of value.

Good price depends largely on the cost of its production and delivery, as well as the number of people wanting to have it.

The desirability and value of goods depends on their utility, ie, the ability to meet the needs.

Product - the product of labor for the exchange.

Goods - visible and tangible objects of value, the goods can be stored, they are divisible.

Services - is purposeful human activity, the result of which has a beneficial effect that satisfies the needs of any person.

Specificity of services reflected in the fact that it has no physical form, can not be postponed (accumulate) must be consumed at the time of production.

The following types of goods.

1. Limited and free.

Are limited to such benefits, which at the moment demand exceeds supply, so have to limit the consumption of a corresponding price.

2. Used and consumed.

If the benefit is used once and disappears, as a benefit, called consumed (food, for example).

3. Consumer (Home) and capital (for the production of other goods).

4. Private and public goods are divided depending on as to whether this or that benefit the needs of one person or is beneficial to all.

Public benefits inherent in three principles: first, they can not sell at the market, they are inseparable. Second, it does not apply to the exclusivity principle, ie they can not provide some and deny others. Blessing can take advantage of, and those who do not pay for it (traffic lights, street lights, beacons). Third, if a blessing to provide at least one person, the other software does not require any additional costs.

For public goods include: education, health, science, energy, public transportation, waterworks, water management, facilities for sport, culture and recreation, police, defense, fire protection, and public administration.

Since the private business can not or will not provide these kinds of public goods, the production of their product range and has to take care of the state.

5. Normal and subordinate (lower).

The demand for a normal good increases with income and decreases with the latter. To subordinate the good - on the contrary.

6. Interchangeable (substitutes) and complementary (complementary). It substitutes are not only many consumer products (eg, pen and pencil, tea and coffee) and production resources, but also the services of transport (train - plane - car), the scope of leisure activities (cinema - theater - circus), etc. The complementary goods - are goods that can not be consumed by one without the other (table and chair, car, petrol, pen and paper).

According to Marx's theory, the cost (value) of economic benefits is determined by the socially necessary labor costs, ie labor perpetrated by middle socio-normal conditions of production and the average intensity of labor.

According to neoclassical theory, the value of goods depends on their rarity, first of all, the intensity of the need and the amount of benefits that can satisfy this need. It is assumed that every need can be met in several benefits, and any economic benefit may be used to meet different needs.

To obtain the missing consumer goods, usually need indirect economic benefits - Resources

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