National models of economic systems

For each system is characterized by its national model of economic organization, as countries differ peculiar stories, the level of economic development, social and national conditions. The study of these models is practical when choosing a model of economic development of the state.

The modern market system is a combination of the forms of business activities and the role of the state. Let us illustrate this with the example of the economy of some developed countries.

The Swedish system is characterized by vigorous participation of the state in ensuring economic stability and the redistribution of income. The heart of the system is the Swedish social policy. For the success of its installed to a high level of taxation, which is more than 50% of the gross domestic product. As a result, the country is reduced to a minimum unemployment, relatively small differences in the incomes of various groups of the population, high level of social security, high capacity and export of Swedish companies. The main advantage of the Swedish model is that it combines a relatively high rate of economic growth with a high level of full employment and welfare.

The German model - a model of a social market economy, linking the expansion of competitive began with the creation of a special social infrastructure that mitigate market failures. In the German economic model, the government does not set economic goals - it lies in the individual market-based solutions, and creates a robust legal and social framework for the implementation of economic initiatives. These general conditions are embodied in civil society and social equality of individuals (equality of rights, starting opportunities and legal protection). They actually consist of two main parts: the civil and commercial law, on the one hand, and the system of measures to maintain a competitive environment on the other. The most important task of the state - to ensure a balance between market efficiency and social justice.

Japanese model - a model of corporate capitalism regulated with special social significance of corporate start.

Japanese model is characterized by a certain lag of higher living standards (including wages) on the growth of labor productivity. This results in reduction of production costs and a sharp increase its competitiveness in the world market.

The Japanese economic model developed different plans and coordinates the activities of the government and the private sector. Economic planning is a recommendation of the state (indicative) character. Plans are government programs that guide and mobilize the individual links of the economy for the execution of national goals. For the Japanese economy is characterized by the preservation of national traditions in borrowing from other countries, all that is needed for the country's development. It is possible to create such a system of management and organization of production, which in Japan gives a great effect. Borrowing the Japanese experience in other countries does not always give the expected result (for example, quality circles), because these countries do not have the Japanese tradition.

American model - a liberal market model, which assumes the priority role of private property, market-competitive mechanism of capitalist motivations, high level of social differentiation.

The American model is based on a system of universal encourage entrepreneurial activity, enriching the most active part of the population. Low-income groups to create an acceptable standard of living at the expense of partial benefits and allowances. The problem of social equality are generally not assigned. This model is based on a high level of productivity and media focus on achieving personal success.

In the American economy, the state plays an important role in the development of and compliance with the rules of the economic game, providing R & D, business freedom, development, education and culture.

Mixed economy dictates the most efficient use of resources, promotes the development and use of advanced technologies. An important non-economic argument in favor of a mixed economy in favor of its bid to personal freedom. Employers and workers move from industry to industry in its sole discretion, not by government guidelines.

Society with a variety of historical and cultural heritage, customs and different traditions use different approaches and methods for the effective use of its own resources

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