The concept and criteria for the classification of economic systems

The economic system - a complex set of economic ordered elements whose interaction provides the material conditions of society.

The economic system - a collection of all the economic processes taking place in the society on the basis of the prevailing therein property relations and the economic mechanism.

Among the factors influencing its development of the economic system, are decisive:

• the existing system of principles of economic decision-making;

• ownership structure;

• mechanisms for information and coordination;

• mechanisms for setting goals and encouraging people to work.

The factors are grouped into three structures: the economic, administrative, information.

Economic structure - is the interaction of elements of material and technical base for the use of limited resources.

Administrative (organizational) structure is a de jure set of rights and duties of officials and economic structures at the disposal of limited resources.

The information structure involves the synthesis and dissemination of information about the activities of the first two structures.

Depending on the form of ownership of these structures together add up to a different way of life: patriarchal, small commodity, state, etc. In one country, the existence of several possible ways of life at the same time. This fact leads to inconsistent and undulating movement of the economic system. For example, if a country is gaining ground state system, it is in the process of nationalization and socialization. In contrast, in the championship of private economic centralization is replaced by way of decentralization, socialization - the isolation, etc.

The modern world is characterized by the presence of different economic systems, each of which was generated in the course of a long historical development. They can be grouped, ie, classify, based on any criterion. As awareness of the historical development of society in different economists are different, and their chosen criteria are not clear. Consider some of the classification of economic systems built on different approaches.

I. Formation approach is characteristic of Marxist theory. Marx formulated a three-term classification.

Primary (archaic) formation included the primitive and the Asiatic mode of production.

The most interesting in this group of Asiatic mode of production. Its basis is an agricultural ("Eastern") community with collective ownership of the land and with the presence of domestic industry, which gave her the opportunity to provide for themselves all necessary, without resorting to the market, whilst remaining within the framework of patriarchal economy.

The need to work together economically marginalized communities, to large-scale development of nature and the defense led to the emergence of despotic states which are concentrated in the hands of the military and economic power: seized ownership of land, the rent charged, appropriated the surplus product, etc. The Asiatic mode of production was typical for many people, but only lasted for a long time in Asia (up to the beginning of XX century.). The reason for his longevity - a primitive-communist nature of the agricultural community.

Another large formation Marx called the secondary, based on private property (slavery, feudalism, capitalism).

The third - the Communist based on the destruction of private property, which includes a number of ways to produce and consists of two phases, the lower of which is socialism. The era of communism is to grow, according to Marx, in the era of "good of humanity."

In accordance with the formational approach economies are taking the image of the five methods of production: primitive, slave, feudal, capitalist, communist. The method of production appears as a set of productive forces and production relations. The nature of the relationship is determined by the dominant form of ownership of the means of production. The emphasis is on the level of development of material production, instability of each system, which sooner or later develops into the next, where the level of production efficiency will be higher.

This approach, like any other, has advantages and disadvantages. With the formational theory of human history appeared in the form of a logical system, not the chaos of facts. Limitations of this approach is that it is applicable generally to Western Europe and therefore has universal value.

II. Civilizational approach involves the study of world history as a unified whole planet with the gradual change of civilizations. The word "civilization" comes from the Latin civilis - «civil", "public".

This term is used to assess the extent and level of culture (eg, ancient, Asian, European).

In Russia, this term has another aspect, assuming reasonably organized system of economic, social and legal relations in developed countries.

At the heart of civilized approach is the fact strengthen the relationship and interdependence of the major problems of mankind, the awareness of the priority of human values ​​over class, national.

This theory is in its infancy. Its main task is to search for signs of backbone.

Some authors as these signs suggest to consider civilization revolution, achieving higher levels of productivity.

The first civilization was the agricultural revolution (about 6-8 million years ago). Next - Industrial (300 years ago). The current revolution is the science and technology (mid XX century.). It moves people into the service of human needs (trade, services, transport, education, science, culture, management, etc.).

Other economists were seven civilizations: Neolithic, a period of 30-35 centuries, slave-owning EAST (Bronze Age) - 20-23 century, antique (Iron Age), which lasted 12-13 centuries; rannefeodalnogo that stretched for 7 centuries, pre-industrial, stretching 4.5 Century; INDUSTRIAL - 2.3 century, post-industrial age, duration of 2.3. Civilizational approach devoid of class conventions, so now it is more common than others. In this - his dignity. However, following the civilizational approach, you can "drive in" the specific development of the different countries and regions in the overall scheme, denying their identity and uniqueness, in which lies the danger of civilized approach.

III. According to another classification, which uses a criterion for the industrial societies, there are three economic systems: pre-industrial, industrial and post-industrial. The latter has another name - "information society."

IV. There are such classifications, which are based on two criteria: ownership of means of production and method for controlling economic activity. On the basis of these features distinguished: traditional, command, market and mixed economy

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