The state - the political structure of a special kind that occurred at a certain stage of social development and is a central institution of power in the political system of a particular society.
The question of the origin of the state is debatable. About the causes of state said in various theories: the theological (divine power) contract (power of the mind, consciousness); psychological (factors of the human psyche), organic (biological factors), materialistic (socio-economic factors), the theory of violence (military-political factors), etc.
Such a diversity of opinions is due to the following:
First, the process of the origin of statehood really influenced by many factors: socio-economic, military, political, climatic, information management, moral, religious, national, historical, spiritual, cultural, environmental, psychological, and so on;
Secondly, thinkers, offers an explanation for this process, we lived in a different historical era and, of course, used different amounts of accumulated knowledge;
Third, explaining the process of the emergence of the state, scientists often taken to illustrate their ideas known to them regions of the world;
Fourth, often thinkers admired the achievements of other sciences, tried to apply these results to the social sciences and, in particular, based on certain achievements, a new look at the process of the origin of the state, making it sometimes so enthusiastically that did not notice the effect of the development of society other factors;
Fifth, we can not exclude the fact that the views of the authors theories are often strongly influenced by their philosophical and ideological preferences.
Each of the theories has its rational arguments positive aspects that reflect the reality in some parts of it. However, they also have their weaknesses, for which they may be criticized.
Decomposition of primitive tribal society, with its organization and formation of the government in different historical conditions have their own specific characteristics. State Formation - a lengthy process that the various races of the world was going different ways.
In the East, the most widespread form such as the Asiatic mode of production (Egypt, Babylon, China, India, etc.). Similar to the way of a state is largely due to the need for these companies to scale social work (construction and maintenance of irrigation facilities, the organization of irrigated agriculture, etc.).
Therefore, there were persistent socio-economic structures of the tribal system - land community, collective property and others that to the greatest extent consistent with the nature of these tasks. The first states that arose in the ancient East, were pre-class, they are simultaneously exploited and rural communities, and managed them, ie acted as organizers of production.
In another historical journey was a process in Athens and Rome, where the slave state was the result of the emergence of private property and the division of society into classes.
Athens - this is an example of the classical form of a state, since the state came directly from the class antagonisms that develop within the tribal system. Two revolutions that have taken place over a century and laid the reforms of Solon (594 BC) and Cleisthenes (509 BC), led to the final destruction of the old, generic devices, existing forms of government to the territorial division of the population and education political power with its legislative, zakonosoveschatelnuyu, executive bodies, permanent army, the police and customs custody, prisons and other public institutions.
Features of creation of the Roman state consisted in the fact that this process has been accelerated by the struggle of the plebeians of Rome's aristocracy of labor - the patricians. The plebeians were personally free individuals from the population of the conquered territories, but stood outside the Roman families and were not part of the Roman people. Owning land ownership, the plebeians had to pay taxes and serve their military service, they were deprived of the right to hold any office, could not use and dispose of the Roman lands.
Fighting plebeians as the main revolutionary force against the privileges of the patricians was mainly the fight against the old social order resting on blood ties. The victory of the plebs in the fight blew up the old, tribal organization and erected a state system based on territorial division and property differences.
The emergence of the ancient German state is strongly associated with the conquest of the Germanic tribes of extensive foreign territory - the western part of the Roman Empire. These tribes, which had by that time had a generic device that could help their organizations to manage the Roman provinces, as to rule over them tribal organization was not suitable. It took a special apparatus of coercion and violence. Supreme commander turned to the monarch, and the national wealth - a royal property; organs of the gentile constitution were quickly converted to the authorities.
It is important to note that a number of scientists takes this view that Germany, Russia and some other countries have not as feudal (the classic signs of a similar state - fixing the peasantry and the largest private land ownership), but as prafeodalnye (with appropriate signs - know has never had a large private land, and the peasants remained as freedom and land ownership).
So, first, the government did not always exist (much of its history, humanity has lived without the organization of political power), and secondly, it has emerged as a social institution, as a product of social development, and thirdly, at a certain stage of development of society, when there is a need in a particular social management and special rules of social behavior, and fourthly, under the influence of a whole system of factors.
No matter how time-consuming the process of state formation, in all cases, the objective is a natural process caused primarily internal development of the society and its various socio-economic, military, political, cultural, historical, ethnic, psychological, moral, religious, geographical and ecological other circumstances. Depending on the reason or another variety of these factors could change, but it was always a certain combination of these principles for mandatory dominant of any one of them.
Today, there are about two hundred countries. However, the process of the emergence of new states is not over. Some states may decay times (USSR, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia), others are combined into larger ones (such a process may have started in the framework of the European Union).
There is still a lot of peoples and nations that do not have their own states. They are making some efforts to create such states. It is, for example, about the Palestinians, Kurds, and other Timorese
Thus, the problem of the emergence of states is not resolved once and for all. Can blossom new causes and forms of such