The laws of nature express stable, recurring (occurring in it) or the phenomena and processes of communication between them. As long as these laws remain unexplored, people consider them in their behavior empirically, unconsciously adapt to them. In society, as in nature, many of the phenomena and processes are sustained and repeated continuously, so are the object of knowledge.
In economics, as in other areas of society, manifested certain objective relations, principles, and according to the laws that brings economic theory. Any theory (including economic) - is the expression of a system of categories, concepts and laws of interactions and processes of the objective world.
Economic categories - are logical concepts that reflect summarizes the most important aspects (conditions) the economic life of society. Categories express some forms of life, living conditions, characterize certain aspects of the development of economic relations.
The logical relationship of economic categories enables a significant figure, constant, remaining firmly in motion and the development of economic processes and phenomena. Getting to know the essence of economic categories, economic theory comes to the definition of economic laws, the study of which is the task of science.
However, although the economic laws - the ultimate goal of scientific knowledge, however, the economy is not functioning according to the laws, open economists - is economists try to understand the laws by which it develops.
Any law - there is an objective need for a significant relation between phenomena or processes, the expression of the intrinsic link between the two. Distinguish between "natural" (natural) and "social" (social) laws. In this regard, we distinguish the distinctive features of the economic laws:
they are the laws of social life, economic activities of the people;
they are historical in nature;
they may not reflect the interests of certain groups or classes.
Economic laws - is emerging between economic phenomena or processes depending expressing their essential nature. Economic dependence, the host status of economic law, is characterized by necessity, objectivity, stability and repeatability. The economic law - this essential relationship, ie such a relationship that expresses the true nature of the economic process.
The most important criterion for the classification of economic laws is their duration:
general (overall) economic laws in force throughout the history of mankind, in all stages of social development. Examples - the law of increasing requirements, the law of economy of time (the law of growth of labor productivity) the law of correspondence relations of production and the level of development of the productive forces of nature, etc.
special economic laws - the laws in force in certain historical periods, ie in the production methods. Examples - the law of value (value); law of demand, the law of supply, etc.
individual (specific) economic laws - those that operate within the same mode of production, for example, the laws of distribution under slavery.
Economic laws, like the laws of nature are objective, but the objectivity of a different nature than is the case with nature. Although economic laws are objective in the sense that they do not depend on the individual or the public consciousness, but their action is not in itself, but is mediated by human activities.
The interaction of economic categories and laws implemented in the pattern that is seen as a trend, the expression of a certain direction in the development of economic processes and phenomena.
The economy - a complex system with several levels. While all levels are interconnected and interdependent principles of family farms, businesses and industries are different from the development of the economy as a whole. In this context, economic theory explores the problem of efficient use of the limited resources at different levels.
Microeconomics examines the interests of business entities, entrepreneurs, businessmen, workers, their needs and motivations, market demand and consumer behavior, etc. In other words, Microeconomics deals with the laws of functioning of individual actors in a market economy, examines the prices and quantities of products in specific markets, demand and supply of certain goods, especially the behavior of firms in different types of market structures.
Macroeconomics examines the system of management of the national economy as a whole, considering the combined aggregate measures of income, employment, price trends, determine the direction of economic policy. It operates with such concepts as aggregate demand and aggregate supply, national income, the financial system, inflation, government budget, macroeconomic proportions and their regulation.
Mezoekonomika (the term was used recently) involves the study of the laws of functioning of certain subsystems of the national economy in the territorial (region, state, city, district, etc.) or industry (industry, agriculture, the military-industrial complex, etc.) section.
Megaekonomika (economic) - explores the most important form of international economic relations (direct international production, labor migration, migration of capital, international monetary relations, international trade).
In the study of economic phenomena and processes used by the positive and normative analysis. Accordingly, the distinction is made between positive and normative economics. If positive economics studies phenomena as they are (or what is in reality, the actual state of affairs), the normative economics requires value judgments and ideas about how it should be.
An example of a positive (actual) statement: "If the dollar will rise, it will contribute to the growth of exports." An example of a normative (evaluative) statement: "Scholarship students must not be below the minimum subsistence level."
Value judgments (normative approach) are implemented in the course of the development of public policy. Economic policy embodies value judgments about people, what should be the economy, what goals are to be achieved (full employment, economic growth, economic efficiency, stable price level, economic freedom, justice, income distribution, economic security, balance of trade), what methods and