Economic relations over the award mobile. This means that the ownership can be transformed into one another. This process is carried out by different methods. Let us consider the most important of them.
Nationalization - is the transition of private ownership of the main objects of the economy (land, industry, transport, banks) to the state. Nationalization has a different socio-economic and political content, depending on whether, by whom, for whom and in what historical era it takes place. Process inverse nationalization is privatization.
Privatization - a transfer of state or municipal property for a fee or free of charge to private ownership. Privatization can be overt, such as rental of state property for the long term by individuals or companies, may be partial, when sold out, for example, only a portion of the shares, may be in the form of de-nationalization and re-privatization.
Denationalizing - represents a return of property nationalized by the state to the former owners. In the 90 years of this process is widely used in the Baltic countries - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
Re-privatization - a return to private ownership of state property that has arisen as a result of buying up companies produced previously, land, banks, stocks and other property from private owners. Re-privatization, as opposed to denationalization, as a rule, is not accompanied by acts of public authorities.
Privatization in Russia has an interesting history. Thus, even Ivan the Terrible on a massive scale confiscated estates disgraced boyars and "planted" on them guardsmen. Catherine II the transfer of state land lords and preferred favorites. In the XVII-XVIII centuries. Russian state owned shipyards, mining companies, woolen and linen manufactories, most of whom subsequently privatized. In modern Russian privatization took wide scope. Its mechanism has been defined by the Law on privatization adopted in 1991, it laid the foundations of privatization:
1. Identified three forms of privatization - selling companies at auction, by competition, by their incorporation. Established two state agencies - management committees to state (municipal) property and property funds. In the first function was to prepare privatization plans and the implementation of activities related to the preparation of enterprises for privatization. Second been selling businesses in auctions to sell their shares.
2. Have been identified for privatization and their monetary value. Particular importance was attached to the property value. It was decided to evaluate companies on the residual value of fixed assets. In fairness, we note that the implementation of the law on privatization intensified social contradictions in society and, therefore, the law itself is being criticized.
Privatization is part of a larger process - the privatization of the economy.
Denationalization - is the transition from a predominantly public policy to regulate the production of its management mainly based on market mechanisms.
As a result of privatization:
· Changes in the structure of ownership in favor of reducing the public and private;
· Changing economic role and functions of the state: the state is no longer a business entity and begins to regulate economic processes is not a directive, through a change in economic conditions;
· Mandatory state jobs are giving way to a system of public procurement;
· State will assume the distribution function of the available resources;
· Gradually abolished the state monopoly of foreign trade