In the development of commodity production can be divided into two stages: a simple and capitalist commodity production.
Typical of the pre-capitalist formations was a simple commodity production (sometimes called underdeveloped commodity production). For a simple commodity production is characterized by the following features:
· Private ownership of the means of production and the products of labor;
· Personal labor of the owner of the means of production;
· An individual production of artisans and peasants carried out by them to meet personal needs.
Simple commodity production, first of all, is widespread and is now 55% of the population in the world - these are small producers, and in Latin America and Africa - up to 90%, and secondly, it is a breeding ground for the emergence of commodity production .
Under capitalism, commodity production has taken a universal character. Here the goods are not only the products of labor, but also the factors of production, including labor.
Market relations are also becoming universal, is reification of the entire system of economic relations that serve as relations between things, there is a commodity fetishism. The emergence of commodity production linked to the approval of the capitalist economic system. Therefore, it is called a capitalist commodity production.
For the capitalist commodity production is characterized by the following features:
· The means of production belong to the capitalists and the workers are deprived of the means of production;
· Capitalist exploits wage labor, donated by assigning a significant part of the product of another's work;
· Collaborative effort of many workers under the command of the capitalists is used in order to obtain their profits.
Note that the second half of the XX century. increased production, the implementation of which is not carried out through the market. You could even say that in the economic life of a particular stood out - unmarketable - the sector.
First, it usually comes to the public sector of the national economy, which are public goods: roads and canals, buildings and parks, gas supply companies and water works, civil or military security, free education, etc.
Second, if the alternative market regulation considered balanced development, it is possible to speak about the presence of directly social character of production, which took place in the pre-capitalist formations.
At issue in this case is not a return to subsistence farming, and further progress, advancing to an entirely new forms of social production, combining all the gains made in the previous stages in the evolution of forms of management